Benson’s Microbiological Applications has been the “gold standard” of microbiology laboratory manuals for over 30 years. This manual has a number of attractive features that resulted in its adoption in universities, colleges, and community colleges for a wide variety of microbiology courses. These features include user-friendly diagrams that students can easily follow, clear instructions, and an excellent array of reliable exercises suitable for beginning or advanced microbiology courses.
In revising the lab manual for the thirteenth edition, we have tried to maintain the proven strengths of the manual and further enhance it. We have updated the introductory material of the fungi, protozoa, and algae to reflect changes in scientific information. Finally, the names of microorganisms used in the manual are consistent with those used by the American Type Culture Collection. This is important for those users who rely on the ATCC for a source of cultures. Guided Tour Through a Lab Exercise
Each exercise opens with Learning Outcomes, which list what a student should be able to do after completing the exercise.
After completing this exercise, you should be able to
1. Prepare a negative stain of bacterial cells using the slide-spreading or loop-spreading techniques.
2. Use the negative stain to visualize cells from your teeth and mouth.
3. Discern different morphological types of bacterial cells in a negative stain.
The introduction describes the subject of the exercise or the ideas that will be investigated. It includes all of the information needed to perform the laboratory exercise.
Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacterial cells. They were first described by Twort and d’Herelle in 1915 when they both noted that bacterial cultures spontaneously cleared and the bacteria-free liquid that remained could cause new cultures of bacteria to also clear. Because it appeared that the cultures were being “eaten” by some unknown agent, d’Herelle coined the term bacteriophage, which means “bacterial eater.” Like all viruses, bacteriophages, or phages, for short,
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